**A priori probability** — The term a priori probability is used in distinguishing the ways in which values for probabilities can be obtained. In particular, an a priori probability is derived purely by deductive reasoning. [Mood A.M., Graybill F.A., Boes D.C. (1974)… … Wikipedia

**probability and statistics** — ▪ mathematics Introduction the branches of mathematics concerned with the laws governing random events, including the collection, analysis, interpretation, and display of numerical data. Probability has its origin in the study of gambling… … Universalium

**probability theory** — Math., Statistics. the theory of analyzing and making statements concerning the probability of the occurrence of uncertain events. Cf. probability (def. 4). [1830 40] * * * Branch of mathematics that deals with analysis of random events.… … Universalium

**Empirical probability** — Empirical probability, also known as relative frequency, or experimental probability, is the ratio of the number favourable outcomes to the total number of trials [ [http://www.answers.com/topic/empirical probability statistics Empirical… … Wikipedia

**Universal probability bound** — A universal probability bound is a probabilistic threshold whose existence is asserted by William A. Dembski and is used by him in his works promoting intelligent design. It is defined as A degree of improbability below which a specified event of … Wikipedia

**Prior probability** — Bayesian statistics Theory Bayesian probability Probability interpretations Bayes theorem Bayes rule · Bayes factor Bayesian inference Bayesian network Prior · Posterior · Likelihood … Wikipedia

**A priori (statistics)** — In statistics, a priori knowledge refers to prior knowledge about a population, rather than that estimated by recent observation. It is common in Bayesian inference to make inferences conditional upon this knowledge, and the integration of a… … Wikipedia

**a priori** — [[t]e͟ɪ praɪɔ͟ːraɪ[/t]] ADJ: usu ADJ n An a priori argument, reason, or probability is based on an assumed principle or fact, rather than on actual observed facts. In the absence of such evidence, there is no a priori hypothesis to work with. ADV … English dictionary

**P-value** — In statistical significance testing, the p value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. One often rejects the null hypothesis when the … Wikipedia

**Prosecutor's fallacy** — The prosecutor s fallacy is a fallacy of statistical reasoning made in law where the context in which the accused has been brought to court is falsely assumed to be irrelevant to judging how confident a jury can be in evidence against them with a … Wikipedia